Mixed Martial Arts Training - Footwork, Maneuverability and the Value of the Hit and Run Strategy

One of the most important aspects in mixed martial arts fighting, and one that is often overlooked and taken for granted, is that of footwork. The fighter with superior footwork and movement skills has a notable advantage in any fight whether boxing, Muay Thai, MMA or streetfighting.

Some of the greatest fighters we have seen in boxing have all displayed tremendous footwork and movement; Jack Dempsey, Sugar Ray Robinson, Sugar Ray Leonard, Prince Nassim and the incomparable Mohammed Ali all utilized incredible foot work and movement skills to evade and attack their opponents.


One of the major difficulties that the early kickboxing scene was plagued with was that fighters came from the karate disciplines. The classical karate disciplines emphasized flat-footed stand your ground tactics with poor footwork and maneuverability. Many early kickboxers, coming from karate backgrounds, complimented their karate kicks with the superior punching techniques taken from boxing but most were slow to adopt the highly mobile boxing footwork.

Mixed Martial Arts Training - Footwork, Maneuverability and the Value of the Hit and Run Strategy

Those fighters that came from a boxing background or who recognized that maneuverable footwork and strategic positioning were an integral part of the boxers' game plan incorporated it in their training and demonstrated a notable advantage.

Muay Thai fighters, however, not tainted by the classical karate systems, have always demonstrated a very fine sense of footwork and position, such that that they move in and out just out of range to make the opponent miss and then back in to range to hit with power and precision.

We saw a repeat of the kickboxing era in the early days of mixed martial arts fighting, with the grapplers dominating and it appeared that fighters that predominantly relied on their standup skills were not going to be competitive. The fighters that relied heavily on standup were very ineffective at stopping the takedowns of the grapplers, allowing themselves to be put in positions that limited their movement and ultimately to be taken down.

That was until Maurice Smith showed that with good footwork and ring (cage) generalship the grapplers could be stopped with a predominantly striking game. From there the evolution continued and predominant strikers appeared again. The mixed martial arts fighters that predominantly relied on their takedown game now under the selective pressure of having to adapt their takedown methods to cope with the evasive maneuverability and adapted striking methods of the standup specialists. The main characteristics that set the successful mixed martial arts fighters apart from those that failed was there footwork and ring (cage) generalship that enabled them to neutralize the takedowns.

We now see mixed martial arts fighters who have adapted and developed there movement and positioning to the cage, such that the fights are more dynamic and evenly balanced between the grapplers and strikers. The latest exponent of excellent footwork and generalship, in mixed martial arts, is Lyoto Machida who demonstrates very powerful hit and move skills that are the key to the strikers' game against a grappler.

It is therefore important that when we train we include fast and maneuverable foot work into our mixed martial arts training drills. Once a new standup striking or takedown setup technique is acquired, and has been adequately drilled for efficacy, we must combine it with effective footwork and movement so that we can move in to execute it, and out again, if it is countered or if on execution we need to move away because it did not finish the job and the opponent covers up; a hit and run strategy of fighting.

Here are some of the main points that must be addressed in your footwork whether fighting mixed martial arts, Muay Thai, or boxing:

1) Learn to move on the balls of the feet with bent knees to facilitate rapid and precise weight transfer.
2) Keep the feet spacing about shoulder width apart, i.e. avoid wide stances.
3) When moving make the steps small; better to take a series of smaller steps, then one large one that upsets balance.
4) Practice quick changes in direction always ensuring to maintain good balance.
5) Practice constant movement.
6) Develop a keen sense of position in relation to your opponent; this must be acquired to the level of unconscious competence so that you can concentrate on the fight.
7) When you step in to strike train for speed, explosiveness and accuracy.
8) Train sprawling and angular changes for takedown avoidance.

In addition, footwork should be developed for both offensive and defensive tactics. The use of evasive angular stepping that is the basis of the "make 'em miss, make 'em pay" strategy, combined with fast bridging the gap techniques and good ring generalship must be developed to provide the complete fight game plan in mixed martial arts.

Mixed Martial Arts Training - Footwork, Maneuverability and the Value of the Hit and Run Strategy

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American Football - A Quick Guide to Positions in American Football

Football is one of the great American pastimes, but can be a little complicated. There is no other sport that has as many positions or stratagem. This article's purpose is to give a brief explanation of the different positions in American football and what their responsibilities are.

Offensive Teams


The quarterback is the offensive leader. It is his job to call the plays, and execute them. He stands behind and is protected from the opposing team by the offensive line. The Quarterback receives the ball and can either pass it by throwing, pitching, or handing off. The quarterback can also seize the opportunity to run the ball himself if the play or the situation calls for it. Due to the nature of the position, it is a leadership role that gets a lot of attention in the media.

American Football - A Quick Guide to Positions in American Football

Offensive Linemen:
The main group of players that block for the quarterback are called offensive linemen. They compose of differing responsibilities referred to as the center, offensive guard, and offensive tackle.

The center is in the center of the offensive line. He is in charge of hiking the ball back to the quarterback and protecting the quarterback along with the offensive line from the opposing team's defense.

Offensive Guard:
In a typical offense there are two offensive guards that position themselves on both ends of the center. There responsibility is to block the opposing team's defense from getting through. They also help open a running route for the running back.

Offensive Tackle:
The players that are on the outside or outer ends of the offensive line are called the offensive tackles. It is there job along with the other offensive linemen to block the opposing team from sacking (tackling) the quarterback, and open up areas for the running back to get through.

The receivers' main objective is to receive the ball on a passing play. They are also used as blockers on a running play. The different names for their positioning on the field are the tight end, and two wide receivers otherwise known as the flanker, and the split end. There positioning is listed below, each one has the same responsibility but are in different places on the field.

The tight end lines up at the end of the offensive line
The flanker lines up on the same side as the tight end but split from the formation
The split end lines up on the opposite side as the tight end and also is split from the formation

Full Back:
The fullback is behind the quarter back and this players job is to block for the halfback

Half Back:
The halfback also is behind the quarter back an performs most of the running plays. This player can also catch short passes when necessary.

Defensive Teams

Defensive Ends:
The defensive ends are positioned on the ends on the center group of the defending teams line of scrimmage. Their responsibility is to break through the offensive line in order to tackle the quarter back when he is planning to pass, or tackle the running back if it is passed to him.

Defensive Tackles:
The defensive tackles perform the same duties as the defensive ends. They are located on the inside of the usual four man line up for the defense.

Line Backers:
The line backers responsibility is just like their name "back the line". They are responsible for any running back that gets pas the defensive ends or tackles. They also cover short passes made over that defensive line

Corner Backs:
Corner backs cover the wide receivers on long passes. There responsibility is to try to prevent the long plays, tackle passes completed and even try for an interception.

The last defense for a running back is a safety. Their job is to cover any longer passes that the cornerbacks are not covering and also to tackle and running backs that get through the line backers. They have more of a observational role making sure that holes are filled and that the offense doesn't make any big plays.

Special Teams

Special teams deal with punts, field goals, and receiving or kicking the ball at the start of the game, after halftime, or any touchdowns.

Catch the kickoff and try to get as far down the field as possible

Block the defense for the returner and try to open up room on the field for them to get through

Hold the ball during a field goal

Place Kicker:
Kicks the ball from a place holder in a kick off

Drop kicks the ball in a punt play to get the defending team away from their inzone.

American Football - A Quick Guide to Positions in American Football

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The Importance of Access Control to Your Building

In today's tricky times, numerous kinds of industrialised facilities have been acknowledged as possible targets, counting all kinds of chemical and petrochemical plants, the oil production and oil refineries, the industrial liquid and gas buildings, fruit pulp and paper producing mills, coal, gold and gems mining operations and medicine production plants. That is the reason that the necessity for a widespread security stratagem for these industries and other significant buildings is growing in exigency universally.

Keeping in view these facts, you require a well confined security access control system which can assist you through the labyrinth of threats that you face in providing an effectual security key for your industrial or residential buildings. When it comes to something as imperative and intricate as the protection of your manufacturing plant, your staff and perhaps even the nearby vicinity along with the proper access control system that you choose to employ is a fundamental decision.


Any organisation has to depend upon its staff and the information they give or work at. This level of dependency and trust helps any organisation run its operations with a pace in accordance with the reliability of the factors involved. Accomplishment depends on the safety and security of these factors. Industrial surveillance, terrorism, stealing, flammable, and defacement put organisations under great stress to uphold security and protection. For this purpose access control is compulsory for both the private and public sectors.

The Importance of Access Control to Your Building

Access control system applications increase the efficiency of any project by providing entire information access and rule of your building. Protect people, property and research facility and accomplishments through the combination of interference exposure, access control, concurrent asset tracking and digital supervision for a complete protection and disaster reaction system.

Access control system advance the relieve, functioning effectiveness of your heating system, aeration and cooling systems as well as lighting and other building administration systems. This decreases costs, develop competence and lessen ecological blow through pioneering power running tools and optimisation of your apparatus. These also certify a safer situation and attain dogmatic observance through superior fire detection systems.

To list down the assistance one can receive by installing Access Control System;

1. Monitoring and protecting the border with interference detection and advanced sensor technology

2. Providing "beyond the perimeter" scrutiny including radar tracking of vessels

3. Identifying and authorising who enters and exits the building

4. Preventing illegal access by identical visitors and contractors

5. Tracking activities of plant occupants, and quickly locating equipment and other assets electronically

6. Controlling access to restricted areas, including enhanced control room.

7. Improving disaster response time through early warning systems and shared alarms

8. Preventing burglary of assets and chemical sources

9. Assessing site security and design solutions that meet projected legislation, including contingency and emergency response plans

10. Integrating systems for greater speed and efficiency

11. Protecting process automation networks and systems from cyber threats

12. Tracking and monitoring vehicle and hazardous materials movements and storage

13. Tracking the location of personnel and visitors on site through automated mustering

The Importance of Access Control to Your Building

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American Civil War Generalship

Generalship in the American Civil War was an uneven skill. None of the Army commanders had ever led planned tactics or led large groups of troops in combat. Those who were career military men were junior officers during the Mexican War. Before that war the peacetime United States Army was small force numbering around 7,400. It swelled with volunteers who enlisted for the duration. Then it returned to its former size after the conflict was over. By comparison many Civil War divisions were the size of the entire pre-Mexican War army. At the beginning of the Civil Warthe Army consisted of 1,080 commissioned officers and 15,000 enlisted men.

The general officers that commanded during the Mexican War were long gone by the time of the Civil War with the exception of Winfield Scott who was the Commanding General of the United States. Scott was approaching 75 when the war began and held the position until November 1861 when he resigned due to ill health. In the intervening months Scott had drawn up a complicated plan that he named Anaconda because he expected that it would choke the South with a coastal blockade and the closure of the Mississippi River. It was substantially the same plan that the North used to defeat the Southern Confederacy.


Robert E. Lee was a staff officer during the war and was promoted to brevet major during the war. By the end of the war, he had received additional brevet promotions to Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel, but his permanent rank was still Captain of Engineers and he would remain a Captain until his transfer to the cavalry in 1855. Future Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston had a similar career path as Lee.

American Civil War Generalship

The much younger Ulysses Grant was lieutenant in the Quartermaster Corps but did see action. Most of the other officers of similar age had a similar rank. George Pickett, James Longstreet, Winfield Scott Hancock were also lieutenants.

At the onset of the war many of the Federal general officers were political appointees who had virtually no military experience. This was a situation that cost the Union Army dearly. Gradually the incompetents were weeded out and the better officers rose to higher command. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, a college professor, and Francis C, Barlow, a lawyer, for the North and John B. Gordon, a lawyer, for the South were three future generals that come to mind. (Barlow was my 2nd great grandfather's commanding officer at Antietam). Eventually, there were many more like them.

The Civil War was fought in stages and dissimilar regions of the country. Let's look at the various stages of the war. In the early stage, say from April 1861 to April 1862 the armies were no more than armed mobs. The commanders were not used to leading or maneuvering large groups of troops. First Manassas is a classic example of this. Anyone who thinks that this battle was anything but a clash of two armed mobs needs to reread accounts of the battle. On the Federal side the main goal was "On to Richmond" and most of the battles in this time period were attempts to capture the Confederate capital.

After a succession of near catastrophic defeats and close victories fought by inept generals Lincoln finally settled on Ulysses S. Grant who had won a succession of bloody battles in the Western Theater: Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, the capture of Vicksburg and battles around Chattanooga. Grant after his elevation to Commanding General selected officers who understood the the destruction of the Confederate armies and their supply lines were the two paramount goals of the Federal armies.

Of course, there were several deviations in this strategy: the Vicksburg campaign because it split the Confederacy in half comes to mind. Antietam was a meeting engagement that was precipitated by Lee's invasion of the North, as was Gettysburg.

Many of the Federal generals rehabilitated their reputations in subordinate commands and by being transferred to different theaters. Joseph Hooker who was relieved of the command of the Army of the Potomac in late-June 1863 was instrumental in the Federal victories around Chattanooga in the fall of 1863.

Comparing early generalship to later generalship is like comparing apples to oranges. McClellan was the right officer for the Union up until Antietam. At Antietam he was afraid to risk the army that he had created against Lee's much smaller force. If Grant, Sherman or Sheridan had commanded the Federal army the war probably would have ended right there with Lee's army defeated in detail.

The consistency of the Confederate leadership in the East enabled them to hold out far longer than they should have. Lee was both an offensive genius and a more than competent defensive commander. His subordinate commanders were mostly graduates of West Point. Men like Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson, Pickett, Lewis Armistead, Longstreet, Jubal Early and A.P. Hill were all West Pointers. Lee who had been the Superintendent from 1852 until 1885 was personally familiar with many of his future division and brigade commanders from his tour on the Hudson. His oldest son, a future general, Custis Lee graduated first in his class in 1854. It was the combination of superior generalship and dedicated soldiers that kept the Southern Confederacy in the war for so long.

From then to now West Point trains its officers to 'pursue the enemy with the utmost audacity' in the words of George S. Patton. At the battle of the Bulge Gen. Lawton J. Collins (Lightning Joe) was said to have told the British General Montgomery that the American Army organizes at the line of attack. And they did sweeping the enemy before them.

Up until modern times the United States military has always been a conscript army. In 1973 the United States instituted an all-volunteer force for all branches of the military. Previous to that we have had to create conscript armies by the use of a draft. The Civil War was no different. Both sides asked for and depended on volunteers for their armies. Eventually, due to casualty rates and the expansion of the fighting both sides resorted to conscription. The battles over conscription in the North and the South is a subject for another day.

From the middle of the war on generalship and leadership on both sides was similar. Their were competent officers and incompetent officers on each side. Eventually, the North, the side with the most men, material and industry won.

American Civil War Generalship

Richard Billies
Richard is a blogger and small business owner in central Virginia.

Pick the Best Liquid Diet For Quick Fat Loss - Know How They Work and What is Recommended

Liquid diets come in a variety of definitions, depending on how studies, experts, experienced amateurs or self-help manuscripts perceive it. To expand simply a good explanation on this, this reduction method is defined as a weight-loss program aimed to withhold solidified snacks being part of the eating habit of an individual. A frequently asked question many people need some clarity is regardless of the safety of the starvation plan. You're asking yourself; is this kind of reducing safe? The answer, it remains unanimously integrated. Since each starvation line ups has their own set of procedures or safety dealings dieters should adjust, they do not forcibly persuade dieters to undergo their methods or scare them if they don't do it. The dependency of how the dietary strategies work is all up to you.

Another frequently asked question; why this starvation plan works? Here's how it is. The fasting style moves during the upgrading of your full body. Losing burden boasts you excess energy in your body so you're not going to be worried during your organized activity juggles. Juice is the best drink among gooey dieters especially if you prefer fiber rich ones. The stored toxins inside your body are released and will leave you with that calm and healthy living. Juice-starving has been a lifestyle among many dieters, everything solid is taken away from their physique with a single, couple or multiple drinks.


Juice-fasting is effective, especially for those encompassing too much solids in their body. But it will be seven more essential and useful if you go with fiber rich fruit juices, which can be found usually in unsweetened or light juices.

Pick the Best Liquid Diet For Quick Fat Loss - Know How They Work and What is Recommended

Cabbage soup dieting is also as effective as the juice type since it requires great-elongated stratagem in wellness and balanced health.

Medifast is a sure frontrunner among the number of recommended gooey dieting. According to experienced dieters, the Medifast approach created a fundamental impact on millions of dieters around the globe; credit for its scientifically enhanced results and validity. It undoubtedly moves every runny dieter freely.

Pick the Best Liquid Diet For Quick Fat Loss - Know How They Work and What is Recommended

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Leaders Set Goals To Define Priorities

Setting goals as the way to define priorities, whether in business or in personal life, is what leaders do to maintain direction and focus in their organizations and in their personal lives. Unfortunately, many managers take a tremendous amount of potential leverage out of their organizations by not prioritizing.

I had a boss whose standard answer to "What's the most important thing?" was "Everything's the most important thing." What a copout. We were in a crisis mode and there was a lot to get done, but what that "Everything is important" direction led to was a lot of counterproductive behavior - hunker down and keep the boss off your butt by being busy all the time - 24/7 - and ride it out. Do what you're told to do, and then ask "What's next?" After a year of that no leverage management style he was fired - but not until some very good people had left the organization.


Managers that take the "everything is Number 1" approach are often rewarded for being tough, no nonsense, aggressive problem solvers. The fact that many of the problems they solved were created by them seems to go unnoticed. Actually, instead of leadership, they use a brute force approach to getting things done. That often works in a crisis situation, but when everything becomes a crisis, those managers lose their effectiveness and their people become cynical about how they are treated. Brute force managers rarely have goals they share with people, and even more rarely do they have their people participate in any meaningful way in setting goals and priorities. To many of them, sharing information and open communication are threats to their control. Many of them are quite happy with a compliance level workforce - the "Just tell me what to do and I'll do it" people. There is no leverage in the Brute Force management style.

Leaders Set Goals To Define Priorities

How do effective leaders create priorities that maximize their own effectiveness and the effectiveness of their organization?

They start with a clear understanding of what the three to five most important things are, personally or professionally. This is tough - there are always many more issues vying for attention than there are resources available to address them. The leader makes the tough decisions - the Brute Force manager doesn't.

Then the leader enlists people in the areas of importance to help arrive at ways to succeed in meeting the most important requirements.

Then the leader creates and communicates and negotiates goals that support the most important three to five issues, or challenges, or opportunities.

The goals are used to create supporting goals, expectations and understandings of importance in the universe of people that can contribute to meeting the goal.

Then leaders act - and expect action from their people.

Leaders protect their own time, and the time of their people, so that maximum focus can be kept on the critical few, and not frittered away on the unimportant many.

And then leaders evaluate, change if change is necessary, and continue to use the process as the basis for action throughout their organization.

And they insist that this process be kept as simple as possible - minimum bureaucracy here. Don't wait for an enterprise wide software system to capture all the data and signups and goal statements. More good goal setting systems have drowned of their own administrative weight than for any other reason. Leaders fight that. Leaders know the critical intersection in goal setting and prioritizing is at the person to person level - not at the form completion and submission point.

And the resulting action they get is so different from the "Tell me what to do and I'll do it" people. Lots of leverage in a shared goal environment - on both a personal and work level.

Leaders know most people want to help, want to contribute, want to be involved in a worthy enterprise, want to be recognized for their contribution. Leaders also know most people work best and most effectively where they have structure and an understanding of what needs to be done. Once they have that, great things start to happen! They no longer have to say "Just tell me what to do and I'll do it" - they know the priorities and what is most important. They can use the freedom that knowledge provides to keep their eyes on the few big balls - and not be distracted by all the little balls that will always bounce around and take up all the time people will let them take up.

Leaders also know there are times when brute force may be the only appropriate tactic - a public safety health product recall, a natural disaster, a systems failure, a fire - all call for everybody pitching in to get things done - whatever that means. But leaders know the brute force tactic is the exception to the rule, and is only used when absolutely necessary. And their people know it - and rather than take it as just another in a long line of fire drills, they pitch in and know their efforts will be part of a worthy enterprise's efforts to succeed. The result is maximum leverage when needed.

If you work or live in an "Everything is important" situation, be careful of burning out. If you can take what leaders do and apply it to your work and your personal situation two things will happen - you'll have more time for the really important things, and your personal and professional success will increase - I guarantee it. And on those brute force days, or weeks, keep the leader's model of goals to priorities firmly in your sights - and get back to it as soon as possible. Start today.

Leaders Set Goals To Define Priorities

Andy Cox is President of Cox Consulting Group LLC. The focus of his work is on helping organizations and their people increase their success in the hiring, developing and enhancing the performance of leaders and emerging leaders. Cox Consulting Group LLC was started in 1995, and has worked with a wide range of organizations, managers and leaders - helping them define success, achieve success and make the ability to change a competitive advantage. He can be reached at http://coxconsultgroup.com

Great Model Railroad Backdrops

A well thought out model railroad backdrop is an essential part of landscaping that should not be overlooked. Here is a guide for a choosing the best background for your train.

One of the blunders I have seen over the years is when a modeler has a beautiful train layout with lots of attention to details, and a backdrop that looks almost like an afterthought. It really detracts from the whole look. Don't fall into the trap of a haphazard background for your railroad.


Do It Yourself

Great Model Railroad Backdrops

You don't have to be a skilled artist to be able to paint your own landscape, but you do have to practice. If you decide to do it yourself, start by practicing on poster board until you are happy with your technique. Be sure to choose the right colors to give a seamless transition from 3-D to 2-D. Pick a spectrum of greens, browns, and greys that reflect the colors of the ground foam products you already use for your ground cover and rocks.

You can keep the background fairly simple and still achieve a great look. You basically need three elements: hills, sky, and trees. The hills should gently slope upwards and downwards, and they will be speckled throughout with various trees. The sky above will of course need clouds, so research pictures and basic cloud painting techniques online.

Use Digital Photos

If you have a flair for photography, you can create a custom backdrop using your own digital photos. Head to the great outdoors and find the right scene that you think would be an appropriate background for your trains. Set your camera up on a tripod to stabilize it and then take a series of side by side photos, taking care to capture the entire landscape. These can be printed onto wallpaper and adhered to the wall with paste. The results will be stunning. Be sure to ask for mildew resistant wallpaper.

Panoramic Wall Murals

A third option is to use panoramic wall murals scaled to the appropriate size for your railroad. These are professional photographs printed onto wallpaper or vinyl wall banner material. You can choose from cityscapes, mountainscapes, or scenes with rolling hills. Be sure to measure the length of your layout so you aren't left short. Again, if you're going for wallpaper, use mildew resistant.

You've spent countless hours on your model railroad. Invest a little time and finish the look of your entire layout with a great model railroad backdrop. Not only will it complement your existing scenery, it will be a grand finishing touch that really completes your railroad.

Great Model Railroad Backdrops

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The Battle of Gettysburg - The Turning Point of the War

On Independence Day, 1863, the last thing on the minds of most Americans was celebrating freedom. Just outside a small town called Gettysburg, in Adams County, Pennsylvania, almost 50,000 men were casualties of the bloodiest battle of the Civil War, the battle that was soon recognized as the turning point of the war.

Confederate General Robert E. Lee had succeeded in defeating Union General Joseph Hooker's forces at Chancellorsville, Virginia, in May of 1863. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia had managed to repel an army twice their size. Emboldened by the victory, Lee decided to continue his march north. His goal was Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; if he could make it to Harrisburg, he hoped to continue on to Philadelphia.


Throughout the month of June, Lee's army marched north toward Pennsylvania. The graciousness for which Lee was known was evident during this campaign; he instructed his troops to treat the civilians on the road well, not seizing supplies such as food and horses, but rather paying for them. Several towns such as York, Pennsylvania were made to pay indemnity rather than supply the Confederates.

The Battle of Gettysburg - The Turning Point of the War

However, on July 1, 1863, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia met Union General George Meade's forces just outside of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and the battle of Gettysburg began in earnest.

For three days vicious fighting ensued on the hillsides of Gettysburg. Over 165,000 men would converge, and before the fighting ended, the ground would run red with blood. The battle was fierce, and the casualties proved it. But the casualties that resulted would not be in vain, at least for the Union; the formidable power of the Army of Northern Virginia would be stricken a fatal blow, one that they, and the South, would never truly recover from.

To this point, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia had proved itself a foe to be reckoned with; more than once they had turned back troops that outnumbered them significantly. And on the first day of fighting, it seemed that Lee would again be victorious.

By the second day, Lee's advantage disappeared. Meade's Army of the Potomac held their ground, outnumbering the Confederate troops by 20,000. When July 3, the third day of fighting, was over, more than a third of Lee's army would be felled.

It was a much needed victory for the North. Hailed as a Waterloo in the Northern papers, Gettysburg seemed to prove that the Union was more than a match for the Army of Northern Virginia, hailed universally as the most accomplished army of either the Union or the Confederacy.

The defeat was more than stunning for Lee; it shook the confidence of a man admired by Southerners and Northerners alike to the core. Still recovering from the recent death of his beloved General Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson, whom Lee referred to as his "right arm," Lee seemed more than dejected by the loss at Gettysburg; he was stricken. He knew now how important Jackson had been to the Confederacy, and how crippled the Army of Northern Virginia was without Jackson.

"It's my fault," Lee was heard to say after the battle of Gettysburg. He blamed himself for the loss, and he was not entirely mistaken; his decision on the third day of battle to pitch a massive frontal assault on the center of the Union line, known as Pickett's Charge, resulted in horrific casualties that paralyzed the Confederate troops.

Lee's conviction that his orders had resulted in the heavy casualties - casualties the Confederate troops, already outnumbered, could hardly afford - drove him to send a letter of resignation to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, a resignation that was rejected.

Lee's official resignation may have been denied, but his own resignation was obvious; the Army of Northern Virginia never again mounted an offensive attack on the U.S. Forces, nor did they ever attempt any capture of Northern territory on the scale of the Gettysburg campaign. The glorious reputation of the Army of Northern Virginia as invincible was tarnished permanently, and the Union's ultimate victory was only a matter of time.

The Battle of Gettysburg - The Turning Point of the War

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